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CEN Pearl Mussel Standard Development Reference List

Welcome to the page for the CEN standard for monitoring populations of freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera)

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) is developing guidance on methods for monitoring freshwater pearl mussel populations and their habitat requirements. This page lists those documents and papers that have been used for this work, as well as other relevant supporting material.

As we understand more about the requirements of pearl mussel, additional items will be added to this list. If you wish to suggest any that should be included please email Louise Lavictoire: llavictoire@fba.org.uk.

References List

Altmüller, R. & Dettmer, R. (2006). Erfolgreiche Artenschutzmaßnahmen für die Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera margaritifera L. durch Reduzierung von unnatürlichen Feinsedimentfrachten - Erfahrungen im Rahmen des Lutterprojekts. Informationsdienst Naturschutz Niedersachsen. Heft 4/06, 192204.

 

Anonymous (2005). Northern Ireland Species Action Plan: Freshwater Pearl Mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Northern Ireland Environment Agency.  http://www.ni-environment.gov.uk/fwpearlmussel_pdf.pdf.

 

Baillie, J. & Groombridge, B. (1996). The 1996 Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland,  Switzerland. 368pp.

 

Barko, J.W. & Smart, R.M. (1980). Mobilization of sediment phosphorus by submersed freshwater macrophytes. Freshwater Biology 10, 229–238.

 

Barko, J.W., Gunnison, D. & Carpenter, S.R. (1991). Sediment interactions with submersed macrophyte growth and community dynamics. Aquatic Botany 41, 41–-65.

 

Bauer, G. (1987). Reproductive strategy of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Journal of Animal Ecology 56, 691–704.

 

Bauer, G. & Vogel, C. (1987). The parasitic stage of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. I. Host response to glochidiosis. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 76, 393–402.

 

Bauer G., Hochwald, S. & Silkenat, W. (1991). Spatial distribution of freshwater mussels: the role of host fish and metabolic rate. Freshwater Biology 26, 377–386.

 

Beasley, C.R. & Roberts, D. (1996). The current distribution and status of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera L. in northwest Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6, 169–177.

 

Berry, P.M., O’Hanley, J.R., Thomson, C.L., Harrison, P.A., Masters, G.J. & Dawson, T.P. (Eds) (2007). Modelling Natural Resource Responses to Climate Change (MONARCH): MONARCH 3. UKCIP Technical Report, Oxford.

 

Bogan, A.E. (1993). Freshwater bivalve extinctions (Mollusca: Unionoida): a search for causes. Integrative and Comparative Biology 33, 599–609.

 

Bowman, J.J. & Bracken, J.J. (1993). Effect of runoff from afforested and nonafforested catchments on the survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in two acid sensitive rivers in Wicklow, Ireland. Biology and the Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 93B, 143–50.

 

Bringlolf, R.B.W., Cope, W.G., Barnhart, M.C., Mosher, S., Lazaro, P.R. & Shea, D. (2007a). Contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussels. Acute and chronic toxicity of pesticide formulations (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin) to glochidia and juveniles of Lampsilis siliquoidea. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26, 2101–2107.

 

Bringlolf, R.B.W., Cope, W.G., Mosher, S., Barnhart, M.C. & Shea, D. (2007b). Contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussels. Acute and chronic toxicity of glyphosate compounds to glochidia and juveniles of Lampsilis siliquoidea (Unionidae). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26, 1994–2100.

 

Bringlolf, R.B.W., Cope, W.G., Eads, C.B., Lazaro, P.R., Barnhart, M.C., & Shea, D. (2007c). Contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussels. Acute and chronic toxicity of technical grade pesticides to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26, 2086–2093.

  

Buddensiek, V. (2001). Okologie der jungen Flussperlmusschel. In: Böttig, E. (Ed.) The Freshwater pearl mussel in Europe: Population status and conservation strategies. Wasserwirtschaftsamt, Hof.

Chesney, H.C.G. & Oliver, P.G. (1998). Conservation issues for Margaritiferidae in the British Isles and Western Europe. Journal of Conchology, Special Publication 2, 231–242.

 

Clarke, S.J. (2002). Vegetation growth in rivers: influences upon sediment and nutrient dynamics. Progress in Physical Geography 26, 159–172.

 

Comfort, A. (1957). The duration of life in Molluscs. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 32, 219–241.

 

Colosimo. M. & Wilcock, P.R. (2007). Alluvial sedimentation and erosion in an urbanizing watershed, Gwynns Falls, Maryland, Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43, 499521.

 

Cosgrove, P., Hastie, L., MacDougall, K. and Kelly, A. (2007) Development of a remote deep-water survey method for freshwater pearl mussels. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.263 (ROAME No. F06AC606). http://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/B450701.pdf

 

Cranbrook, Earl of (1976). The commercial exploitation of the freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera L. (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae) in Great Britain. Journal of Conchology 29, 87–91.

 

Cunjak, R.A. & McGladdery, S.E. (1991). The parasite-host relationship of glochidia (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae) on the gills of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69, 353–358.

 

Curran, J.C. & Wilcock, P.R. (2005). The effect of sand supply on transport rates in a gravel-bed channel. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 131, 961–967.

 

Daly, K., Jeffrey, D. & Tunney, H. (2001).  The effect of soil type on phosphorus sorption capacity and desorption dynamics in Irish grassland soils. Soil Use and Management 17, 1220.

 

Degerman, E., Alexanderson, S., Bergengren, J., Henrikson, L., Johansson, B.-E., Larsen, B.H. & Söderberg, H. (2009). Restoration of freshwater pearl mussel streams. WWF, Sweden, Solna. 62pp. www.wwf.se/fpm

 

Dietrich, W.E., Kirchner, J.W., Ikeda, H. & Iseya, F. (1989). Sediment supply and the development of the coarse surface layer in gravel-bedded rivers. Nature 340, 215–217.

 

Dolmen, D., Arnekliev, J.V. & Haukebo, T. (1995). Rotenone tolerance in the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera. Nordic Journal of Freshwater Research 70, 2130.

 

Dolmen, D. & Kleiven, E. (2004). The impact of acidic precipitation and eutropication on the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) in Southern Norway. Fauna Norvegica 24: 7-18.

 

Dunca, E., Söderberg, H. & Norrgrann, O. (2011). Shell growth and age determination in the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera in Sweden: natural versus limed streams. Ferrantia 64: 48-58.

 

Ellis, M.M. (1936). Erosion silt as a factor in aquatic environments. Ecology 17, 29–42.

 

Eriksson, M.O.G., Henrikson, L. & Oscarson, H.G. (1981). Effects of acidification on freshwater molluscs in Alvsborgs lan. Lansstyrelres, Alvsborgs lan 2, 112.

 

Eriksson, M.O.G., Henrikson, L. & Oscarson, H.G. (1982). Acidification - a threat against the pearl mussel. Sveriges Natur 73, 16–19.

 

European Commission (2006). Assessment, Monitoring and Reporting under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive: Explanatory Notes and Guidelines. http://biodiversity.eionet.europa.eu/article17.

 

European Communities Environmental Objectives (Freshwater Pearl Mussel) Regulations, S.I. 296 of (2009). Stationery Office, Dublin.

 

Evans C.D, Monteith, D.T. & Cooper, D.M. (2005). Long-term increases in surface water dissolved organic carbon: observations, possible causes and environmental impacts. Environmental Pollution 137, 5571.

 

Fischenick, J.C. (2003). Effects of rip rap on riverine and riparian ecosystems. Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Programme. US Army Corps of Engineers.

 

Geist, J. (2005). Conservation genetics and ecology of European freshwater pearl mussels (Margaritifera margaritifera L.). PhD thesis. Technischen Universität München.

 

Geist, J. & Kuehn, R. (2008). Host-parasite interactions in oligotrophic stream ecosystems: the roles of life history strategy and ecological niche. Molecular Ecology 17, 997–1008.

 

Gurnell, A.M., Angold, P.G, Goodson, J.M., Morrissey, I.P., Petts, G.E., Steiger, J. (2004). Vegetation propagule dynamics and fluvial geomorphology. In: Riparian Vegetation and Fluvial Geomorphology, Bennett, S.J. & Simon, A. (Eds). Water Science and Applications Series 8, American Geophysical Union: Washington, DC; 209–219.

 

Hastie, L. C. & Cosgrove, P. J. (2001). The decline of migratory salmonids: a new threat to pearl mussels in Scotland. Freshwater Forum 15, 85–96.

 

Hastie, L.C., & Boon, P.J. (2001). Does electrofishing harm freshwater pearl mussels ? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 11, 149–152.

 

Hastie, L.C., Cosgrove, P.J., Ellis, N. & Gaywood, M.J. (2003). The threat of climate change to freshwater pearl mussel populations. Ambio 32, 40–-46. 

 

Henriksen, A., Posch, M., Hultberg, H. & Lien, L. (1995). Critical loads of acidity for surface waters - Can the ANC (limit) be considered variable? Water Air and Soil Pollution 85, 2419–2424.

 

Henrikson, L. & Brodin, Y.-W. (Eds.), (1995). Liming of acidified surface waters: A Swedish synthesis. Springer Verlag, Berlin. 458 pp.

 

Henrikson, L. & Söderberg, H. (2013). Effects of acidification and liming on the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera Margaritifera. Hydrobiologia Manuscript not yet accepted.

 

Heming, T.A., Vinogradov, G.A., Klerman, A.K. & V. Komov, T. (1988). Acid-base regulation in the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera: Effects of emersion and low water pH. Journal of Experimental Biology 137: 501-511.

 

Howard, J.K. & Cuffey, K.M. (2006). The functional role of native freshwater mussels in the fluvial benthic environment. Freshwater Biology 51, 460–474.

 

Huff, S.W., Campbell, D., Gustafson, D. L., Lydeard, C., Altaba C. & Giribet, G. (2004). Investigations into the phylogenetic relationships of freshwater pearl mussels (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae) based on molecular data: implications for their taxonomy and biogeography. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70, 379–388.

 

Hulme, P.E. & Bremner, E.T.  (2006). Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 43–50.

 

Jansen, W., Bauer, G. & Zahner-Meike, E. (2001). Glochidial mortality in freshwater mussels. In Bauer, G. & Wachtler, K. (Eds), Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoidea. Ecological Studies 145. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 185–211.

 

Karna, D.W. & Millemann, R.E. (1978). Glochidiosis of salmonid fishes. III. Comparative susceptibility to natural infection with Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) (Pelecypoda: Margaritanidae) and associated histopathology. Journal of Parasitology 64, 528537.

 

Killeen, I.J., Oliver, P.G. & Fowles, A.P. (1998). The loss of a freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) population in NW Wales. Journal of Conchology Special Publication 2, 245250.

 

Lacroix, G.L. (1989). Ecological and physiological responses of Atlantic salmon in acidic organic rivers of Nova Scotia, Canada. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 46, 375386.

 

Larsen, B.M. (2001). Overvåking av elvemusling Margaritifera margaritifera i Norge, Årsrapport 2000. – NINA Oppdragsmelding 725, 1–43.

 

Larsen, B.M. (2012). The effects of liming on the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) in a Norwegian river. In Henrikson, L., Arvidsson, B. & M. Österling, (Eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on “Aquatic Conservation with Focus on the Freshwater Pearl Mussel Margaritifera margaritifera”, Sundsvall, Sweden, 12-14 August, 2009. Karlstad University Studies 2012:40: 153-169. ISBN 91-7063-045-3.

 

Laughton, R., Cosgrove, P., Hastie, L. & Sime, I. (2008). Effects of aquatic weed removal on freshwater pearl mussels and juvenile salmonids in the River Spey, Scotland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18, 44–54.

 

Levasseur, M., Bergeron, N.E., Lapointe, M.F. & Bérubé, F. (2006). Effects of silt and very fine sand dynamics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) redds on embryo hatching success. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 63, 14501459. 

 

Lenormand, T. (2002). Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17, 183–189.

 

Lindh, U., Mutvei, H., Sunde, T. & Westermark, T. (1988). Environmental history told by mussel shells. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B 30, 388–392.

 

Lydeard, C., Cowie, R. H., Ponder, W. F., Bogan, A. E., Bouchet, P., Clark, A. S., Cummings, K. S., Frest, T. J., Gargominy, O., Herbert, D. G., Hershler, R., Perez, K. E., Roth, B., Seddon, M., Strong E. E. & Thompson, F.G. (2004). The global decline of nonmarine molluscs. Bioscience 54, 321–329.

 

Madsen, J.D., Chambers, P.A., James, W.F., Koch, E.W. & Westlake, D.F. (2001). The interaction between water movement, sediment dynamics and submersed macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 444, 7184.

 

Mäkelä, T.P. & A. Oikari O.J. (1992). The effects of low water pH on the ionic balance in freshwater mussel Anodonta anatina L. Annales Zoologici Fennici 29: 169-175.

 

Malley, D.F., Huebner, J.D. & Donkersloot, K. (1988). Effects on ionic composition of blood tissues of Anodonta grandis grandis (Bivalvia) of an addition of aluminium and acid to a lake. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 17: 479–491.

 

McAllister, D., Craig, J., Davidson, N. & Seddon, M. (1999). The Biodiversity Impacts of Large Dams. Report to IUCN, Gland.

 

Mellinger, P.J. (1973). The Comparative Metabolism of Two Mercury Compounds as Environmental Contaminants in the Freshwater Mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera  In: Trace Substances in Environmental Health VI,  Hemphill, D.D. (Ed.). University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 173180.

 

Meyers, T.R. & Millemann, R.E. (1977). Glochidiosis of salmonid fishes. I. Comparative susceptibility to experimental infection with Margaritifera margaritifera (L.). (Pelecypoda: Margaritanidae). Journal of Parasitology 63, 728733.

 

Miguel, E.S., Monserrat, S., Fernández,, C., Amaro, R., Hermida, M., Ondina P. &  Altaba, C.R. (2004). Growth models and longevity of pearl mussels (Margaritifera margaritifera) in Spain. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82, 1370–1379.

 

Monteith, D.T., Stoddard, J.L., Evans, C.D., de Wit, H.A., Forsius, M., Høgasen, T., Wilander, A., Skjelkva, B. L., Jeffries, B.S., Vuorenmaa, J., Keller, B., Kopacek, J. &  Vesely, J. (2007). Dissolved organic carbon trends resulting from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry, Nature 450, 537–540.

 

Moorkens, E. A. (2006). Irish non-marine molluscs – an evaluation of species threat status. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 30, 348371.

 

Moorkens, E.A. (2013). Margaritifera margaritifera: Stage 1 and Stage 2 survey guidelines. Irish Wildlife Manuals No. 12, Version 2. The National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

 

Moorkens, E.A. & Costello, M.J. (1994). Imminent extenuation of the Nore freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera durrovensis Phillips: a species unique to Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 4, 363–365.

 

Moorkens, E.A. & Costello, M. J. (2004). Survival of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera after opening with mussel tongs. In: Molluscan Biodiversity and Conservation. Journal of Conchology Special Publication No. 3, 9194.

 

Moorkens, E.A. & Killeen, I.J. (2009). Database of association with habitat and environmental variables for non-shelled slugs and bivalves of Britain and Ireland. Irish Wildlife Manuals No. 41. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

 

Moorkens, E.A., Killeen, I.J.& Ross, E. (2007). Margaritifera margaritifera (the freshwater pearl mussel) conservation assessment. Backing Document. In: The status of EU protected habitats and species in Ireland, 100-148. http://www.npws.ie/publications/euconservationstatus/NPWS_2007_Cons_Ass_Backing_V1.pdf, Dublin.

Morales, J.J., Negro, A. I., Lizana, M., Martinez A. & Palacios, J. (2004). Preliminary study of the endangered populations of pearl mussels Margaritifera margaritifera (L.) in the river Tera (north-west Spain): habitat analysis and management considerations. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14, 587–596.

 

Mutvei, H. & Westermark, T. (2001). How environmental information can be obtained from naiad shells. In Bauer, G. & Wächtler, K. (Eds), Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoidea. Ecological Studies 145. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 367–379.

 

Nagel, K.O., Badino, G. & Celebrano, G. (1998). Systematics of European Naiades (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae and Unionidae): a review and some new aspects, Bivalvia I. Malacological Review 7: 83–104.

 

Nezlin, L.P., Cunjak, R.A., Zotin, A.A. & Ziuganov, V.V. (1994). Glochidium morphology of the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) and glochidiosis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): a study by scanning electron microscopy. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72, 1521.

 

Nunney, L. & Campbell, K.A. (1993). Assessing minimum viable population size: demography meets population genetics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8, 234–239.

 

NS2(2010a). North South 2 Project Monitoring Methods Report Freshwater Pearl Mussel Sub-basin Plans. NS2 for Department of Environment, Heritage & Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.  http://www.wfdireland.ie/docs/5_FreshwaterPearlMusselPlans/Monitoring%20Manual/NS2%20FPM%20Monitoring%20Methods%20Report%20160609.pdf

 

NS2(2010b). Freshwater Pearl Mussel Second Draft Clady Sub-Basin Management Plan NS2 for Department of Environment, Heritage & Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.  http://www.wfdireland.ie/docs/5_FreshwaterPearlMusselPlans/Freshwater%20Pearl%20Mussel%20Plans%20March%202010/Second%20Draft%20of%20Clady%20Sub-Plan%20March.2010.pdf

 

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Österling, E. M.,Greenberg, L.A. & Arvidsson, B.L. (2008). Relationship of biotic and abiotic factors to recruitment patterns in Margaritifera margaritifera. Biological Conservation 141: 1365-1370.

 

Posch. M., Kämeri, J., Forsius, M., Henriksen, A. & Wilander, A. (1999). Exceedance of critical loads for lakes in Finland, Norway, and Sweden: Reduction requirements for acidifying nitrogen and sulfur deposition. Environmental Management 21: 291-304.

 

Preston, S.J., Keys, A. & Roberts, D. (2007). Culturing freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera: a breakthrough in the conservation of an endangered species. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17, 539–549.

 

Purser, G.J. (1988). Factors affecting the distribution of the freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) in Britain. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen.

 

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Raven, P.J., Fox, P., Everard, M., Holmes, N.T.H. and Dawson, F.H. (1997). ‘River Habitat Survey: a new system for classifying rivers according to their habitat quality’, in Boon, P.J. and Howell, D.L. (Eds), Freshwater Quality: Defining the Indefinable?, The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, 215–234.

 

Raven, P.J., Boon, P.J., Dawson, F.H. and Ferguson, A.J.D. (1998). ‘Towards an integrated approach to classifying and evaluating rivers in the UK’, Aquatic Conser6ation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 8, 383–393.

 

Reis, J. (2003). The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera (L.)) (Bivalvia, Unionoida) rediscovered in Portugal and threats to its survival. Biological Conservation 114, 447–452.

 

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Rudzite, M. (2004). Distribution of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus 1758) in Latvia in relation to water quality. Acta Universitatis Latviensis, Biology 676, 79–85.

 

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Schmidt, C. & Vandré, R. (2012). Do signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus harm freshwater pearl mussels? Some field observations. In: Henrikson, L., Andersson, B & Österling, M. (Eds), Proceedings of the international conference on “Aquatic conservation with focus on the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaitifera”, Sundsvall, Sweden, 12-14 August, 2009. Karlstad University Studies 2012:40, 171-183. ISBN 987-91-7063-447-5.

 

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Steiger, J., Tabacchi, A.E.,  Dufour, B.S. Corenblitb, C.D. & Peiryd, J.-L. (2005). Hydrogeomorphic Processes affecting riparian habitat within alluvial channel–floodplain river systems: a review for the temperate zone. River Research and Applications 21, 719–737.

 

Strayer, D. (2008). Freshwater Mussel Ecology: A Multifactor Approach to Distribution and Abundance. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

 

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Törnblom, J., Degerman, E., Angelstam, P., Henrikson, L., Söderberg, H., Norrgrann, O. (2008). Predicting occurrence of viable populations of freshwater pearl mussels, Margaritifera margaritifera (L.), in middle Sweden. In Törnblom, J. A landscape approach towards ecological integrity of catchments and streams. Doctoral Thesis No.2008:70. Faculty of Forest Sciences, SLU.

 

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Wächtler, K., Dreher-Mansur, M.C. & Richter, T. (2001). Larval types and early postlarval biology in naiads (Unionoida). In: Bauer, G. & Wächtler, K. (Eds), Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoidea, Ecological Studies 145. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 93–125.


Wilcock, P.R.(1996). Estimating local bed shear stress from velocity observations. Water Resources Research, 32, 3361-3366.

 

Wilcock, P.R.& Crowe, J.C. (2003). Surface-based transport model for mixed-size sediment. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 129: 120.

 

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Young, M.R. & Williams, J.C. (1983a). Redistribution and local recolonisation by the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (L.). Journal of  Conchology 31, 225234.

 

Young, M.R. & Williams, J.C. (1983b). The status and conservation of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera Linn. in Great Britain. Biological Conservation 25, 3552.

 

Young, M.R. & Williams, J.C. (1984a). The reproductive biology of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linn.) in Scotland. I. Field studies. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 99, 405422.

 

Young, M.R. & Williams, J.C. (1984b). The reproductive biology of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linn.) in Scotland. II. Laboratory studies. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 100, 29–43.

 

Young, M.R., Cosgrove, P.J. & Hastie, L.C. (2001). The extent of, and causes for, the decline of a highly threatened naiad: Margaritifera margaritifera. In: Bauer, G. & Wächtler, K. (Eds), Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoidea. Ecological Studies 145. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 337–357.

 

Zahner-Meike, E. & Hanson, J.M. (2001). Effects of muskrat predation on Najads. In: Bauer, G. & Wachtler, K. (Eds), Ecology and evolutionary biology of the freshwater mussels Unionoida - Ecological Studies Volume 145, 163184. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

 

Ziuganov, V.V. (2005). A paradox of parasite prolonging the life of its host. Pearl mussel can disable the accelerated senescence program in salmon. Biology Bulletin 32, 360365 (In Russian with English abstract).

 

Ziuganov, V.V. & Nezlin, L.P. (1988). Evolutionary aspects of symbiosis of pearl mussels and salmonid fishes. In: The Problems of Macroevolution. Moscow, Nauka, 110111. (In Russian).

 

Ziuganov, V., Kaliuzhin, S., Beletsky, V. & Popkovich, E. (2001). The pearl mussel–salmon community in the Varzuga river, northwest Russia: problems and environmental impacts. In Bauer, G. & Wächtler, K. (Eds), Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoida. Ecological Studies 145. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 359–366.

 

 

 
 
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